Ligament injuries of the knee and shoulder were not as effectively treated in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, and patients are now returning with severe arthritis requiring joint replacement. Major advances have occurred with arthroscopic surgical techniques for treating ligaments and joint injuries, and are now much more effective. We therefore expect the frequency of arthritis to be much less. In addition to advances in surgical procedures, rehabilitation techniques have also improved outcomes for knee and shoulder injuries. A normal joint needs constant range of motion to preserve health and function. In the past, many joint injuries or fractures were treated with prolonged immobilization using casts or braces. Over the last 15 years, rapid range of motion and rehabilitation have proven to reduce recovery problems with knee and shoulder injuries.