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Leaf Litter Is an Environmental Windfall

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Leaf litter is truly an environmental windfall.  Fallen leaves act as a wildlife boon enriching soil, providing a down-like comforter for small critters, and, according to one estimate, benefiting at least 122 bird species nationwide.

Mother Nature does not remove fallen leaves—and for good reason:

  • Leaf litter provides food and shelter for earthworms, pill bugs, millipedes and a multitude of smaller life such as eggs and larvae of insects and spiders, all essential components of the food web for toads, frogs, lizards, and other animals.
  • Nearly all backyard birds require protein from insects to feed their young.  Birds will “mine” the leaf litter for insects.
  • Leaf litter fosters living soils with vast numbers of beneficial soil bacteria, fungi, and nematodes working in concert to build healthy loam and to nourish plants.
  • In a study of the effect blue oak litterfall (leaves, twigs, and acorns) on rangeland soil, researchers found that the improved environment for soil organisms under blue oaks leads to enhanced soil quality and fertility.  Soil quality quickly declines upon the removal of the oaks.
  • In addition to leaf litter’s benefits to soils and wildlife, fallen leaves suppress weeds, mitigate erosion, and reduce the need for irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers, and their poisonous run-off.

But, sometimes fallen leaves are just too much, threatening to smother lawns and perennials. Rake excess leaves to an unused area of the yard or compost them. Try grinding or chopping leaves with a chipper or weed eater. On the lawn, use a mulching or rotary lawnmower to shred the leaves; leave in place to nourish the grass and reduce water needs.   If you truly cannot use all your leaves, perhaps a neighbor would welcome your contribution.

Be sure to keep litter and mulch away from plant stems and trunks to prevent crown rot.  And, some plants that naturally grow in rocky, dry terrain should not be mulched with additional organic material.  Leaf litter that collects below diseased plants (fungus-bearing plants like roses, peonies, iris, and hollyhocks) is best disposed of entirely.  Fruit tree leaf fall is also best removed to prevent possible reinfestation with certain diseases and insects.

Avoid sending plant materials to a landfill whenever possible. Leave the leaves to save time and money, enrich soil, help sustain wildlife, and benefit water and air quality.  Mother Nature will thank you.

 Vera Strader is a University of California Cooperative Extension Master Gardener of Tuolumne County who mulches the leaves in her Sonora garden. UCCE Master Gardeners of Tuolumne County will answer gardening questions through their hotline at (209) 533-5912. For more information about our public education classes and activities, go to our UCCE Master Gardeners of Tuolumne county website at They can also be found on Facebook at Master Gardeners-Tuolumne County.